Issue 9.1

Class III malocclusion. Role of nature and nurture


In order to make an accurate diagnosis and growth prediction, the orthodontist should consider the role that genetics plays in determining the facial morphology of the patient. One of the major problems which have delayed progress in the investigation of the influence of heredity is the complex nature of multi-factorial inheritance. Though Class III malocclusion is thought to be a result of interaction of genes and environment, studies on family pedigree have pointed a probability of its monogenic dominant inheritance. Studies have also pointed that genes and the variation in their expression can be a factor in development of Class III malocclusion. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and HOX 3 are few such genes. On a sub-molecular level, chromosomal loci (1p36, 12q23) harbor genes which increase the susceptibility towards mandibular prognathism. The influence of genetic factors on treatment outcome must be studied and understood in quantitative terms. Only then will we begin to understand how nature (genetics) and nurture (environment) together affect our treatment of our patients. This article reviews the role of nature (genetics) and how its influences the facial morphology.

Keywords: genes, chromosomal loci, Class III malocclusion, heredity

Keywords: 3-D images, orthodontic diagnosis, CBCT

Cone beam Computed Tomography: Third Eye in Diagnosis and Treatment planning


Orthodontic treatment of adult patients with complex dental problems is done in interdisciplinary teams where different specialist of dental medicine have to manage a vast quantity of data. In such complicated cases good diagnostic tools and easy communication are essential. Computer science has an increasing impact in almost every aspect of the orthodontic practice, research and education. Within the past decade, technology termed “cone beam computed tomography” (CBCT) has evolved that allows 3-D visualization of the oral and maxillofacial complex from any plane. With the development of Cone Beam Computed Tomography, there has been a drastic reduction in radiation exposure to the patient, which allows its use for safely obtaining 3 dimensional images of the craniofacial structures. This should allow the clinician to visualize the hard and soft tissues of the craniofacial region from multiple perspectives, which could have far-reaching implications for treatment planning in orthodontics and orthognathic surgery. This paper shall discuss in detail the principles of the Cone Beam computed tomography  and its applications in the field of orthodontics.

Incognito System: Clinical Cases


Today a customized lingual orthodontic appliance achieves better treatment results as conventional buccal orthodontics. Two cases with a Class I malocclusion treated with customized lingual orthodontic appliance are presented. Efficiency and results are the keywords of these treatments completed in a short time with few visits.

Keywords: customized lingual appliance, Class I malocclusion, Incognito System

Case Pre-Finishing Checklist


The real value of the preadjusted appliance becomes apparent in finishing stage. The more accurate the appliance the less time and effort is required during finishing stage. But bonding the bracket at the correct position is a critical issue in orthodontics. Any error has to be corrected before finishing and removal of the appliance. Preadjusted bracket will take you most of the way in treating a case , but the fine tunning still require during finishing to give a healthy, functional, stable occlusion with beautiful smiles. Checklist can be evaluated with different aids like pre-finishing photographs, dental cast, lateral cephalogram, OPG, IOPAR of upper and lower anterior teeth. It will help in giving overview to a clinician who is treating the case simply to monitor patients’ progress throughout treatment. We have found this form to be useful and time-efficient.

Keywords: Finishing, Errors, Orthodontic Checklist

Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) and the orthodontist


Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) (previously known as dysmorphophobia is sometimes referred to as body dysmorphia or dysmorphic syndrome) is a psychological somatoform disorder in which the affected person is excessively concerned about and preoccupied by a perceived defect in his or her physical features body image.

Keywords: Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), dysmorphophobia, orthodontics.

The effects of two mouth rinses on shear bond strength 
of orthodontic brackets – An In-vitro study


Aims: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of two commercial mouth washes and artificial saliva on the shear bond strength (SBS) of metallic orthodontic brackets bonded to teeth.
Methods and subjects: To this aim, 45 human premolars were divided into three equal groups. The samples of all three groups were stored in artificial saliva for two weeks. Group II and III samples were rinsed in Orthokin® and Oral B® mouth rinses for 60 seconds per day. SBS and adhesive remnant index (ARI) of all three groups were evaluated and compared with each other. In order to assess SBS the brackets were debonded using a shear-peel load on a universal testing machine (Instron Corporation, Canton, MA, USA) at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. The load was recorded at bond failure and used to calculate the bond strength.
Results: Artificial saliva was found to have the highest SBS for 15.27±0.58 MPa, followed by Oral B® group for 10.11±0.94 MPa. Orthokin® group had the lowest SBS for 7.59±0.59. One-way ANOVA showed that these differences were statistically significant.
Conclusion: Chemical ingredients of three groups might be the reason of SBS differences.

Keywords: Shear Bond Strength, Mouthwash, Adhesive remnant index, Orthodontics brackets, Orthodontics.





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